4’33″ 聆聽寂靜的聲音

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4’33"  聆聽寂靜的聲音

by Jamie Blackler

John Cage’s masterpiece explores the sounds of silence.
約翰‧凱吉的名曲探討沉默之聲。

  

  

  Pieces of music are typically identified by their lyrics, chords, rhythms, and melodies. So what happens when you __1__ all of these elements out of a song? Can it still be considered music? American composer John Cage explored this concept in his avant-garde composition entitled, "4’33."
  Composed in 1952, the song’s title __2__ its length: four minutes and 33 seconds. For the song’s duration, the performers of "4’33" are __3__ not to play a single note on their instruments. This leaves the audience __4__ in a quiet room—and that’s when the magic begins. "4’33" gently forces listeners to confront silence and emptiness. Some people enjoy the silence, while others become __5__ from the lack of noise that they are constantly bombarded by in their everyday lives. In the end, it’s impossible to maintain complete silence for long. The ambient sounds of air conditioners humming, birds chirping by a window, or people rustling in their seats come to the forefront. __6__, the background noises of the present moment become the song, making every performance of "4’33" entirely unique.
  This one-of-a-kind song sparked a discussion about the definition of music. Some critics dismissed it as a cheap publicity stunt, while others felt it was a stroke of genius. Cage felt it exemplified his idea that, in life, everything we do is music. This composition also brought the Zen Buddhist concepts of silence and nothingness, __7__ that Cage was deeply interested in, to the classical music stage. Although Cage composed several acclaimed works during his life, he considered "4’33" to be his masterpiece.
1. (A) scatter  (B) swirl  (C) strip  (D) scratch
2. (A) refers to  (B) abides by  (C) figures out  (D) tops off
3. (A) destined  (B) instructed  (C) established  (D) disguised
4. (A) sit  (B) sitting  (C) sits  (D) be sitting
5. (A) versatile  (B) patriotic  (C) ethical  (D) anxious
6. (A) Eventually  (B) Frequently  (C) Obviously  (D) Previously
7. (A) disturbances  (B) vengeances  (C) philosophies  (D) conspiracies

 

chord n. 和弦
rhythm n. 節奏
avant-garde a. 前衛的
note n. 音符;紙鈔
emptiness n. 空虛
ambient a. 周圍(環境)的
chirp vi.(鳥)鳴叫
rustle vi. 沙沙作響
a stroke of genius  聰明之舉,絕妙的主意
stroke n.(繪畫、寫字的)一筆,一畫
exemplify vt. 舉例說明
nothingness n. 空;無

1. force sb to V  迫使某人(做)……
Mom forced Kevin to clean his room before allowing him to play computer games.
媽媽要凱文先打掃房間才准打電動。

2. the / a lack of…  缺乏……
The company’s problems are compounded by a lack of direction.
該公司的問題因缺乏方向而更加惡化。

3. come to the forefront  走到前面;湧現;引人注目
Since Gary has had great success as a lawyer, he has really come to the forefront in politics.
由於蓋瑞作為一名律師的成功表現,令他在政治圈也十分引人注目。

4. dismiss A as B  摒棄 A 視為 B
dismiss vt. 摒棄;解散(部隊)
: dismiss sb from his / her job  開除某人的職位
Mr. Jones dismissed Larry’s proposal as unrealistic.
瓊斯先生認為賴瑞的提案不切實際。
Rachel was dismissed from her job for incompetence.
瑞秋因不適任而遭開除。
*incompetence n. 不適任;無能力

1. So what happens when you strip all of these elements out of a song?
那若把一首歌裡的這些元素全都拿掉後會發生什麼事呢?

理由:
a. (A) scatter vt. 使散落,撒
Ben made a huge mess when he scattered his toys all over the place.
小班將他的玩具丟得到處都是,把這裡弄得一團亂。
(B) swirl vt. 使旋轉,打轉
The strong wind swirled the fallen leaves on the ground.
強風讓地上的落葉旋轉。
(C) strip vt. 剝奪;剝去
: strip sb of sth  剝奪某人的某物
The general stripped the soldiers of their medals after they were arrested.
這些軍人被逮捕後,將軍剝奪了他們的勳章。
(D) scratch vt.(用爪子)抓;搔
I was playing with the cat when it scratched my face.
我和貓咪玩的時候,牠抓了我的臉。
b. 根據語意及用法,(C) 項應為正選。

2. Composed in 1952, the song’s title refers to its length: four minutes and 33 seconds.
這首曲子作於 1952 年,名稱指的是歌曲長度:四分三十三秒。

理由:
a. (A) refer to…  意指∕指的是……
When I made that comment, I was referring to what the professor had said in his last lecture.
我作出那個評論時,指的是教授在上一場演講中所說的話。
(B) abide by…  遵守……
: comply with…
= conform to…
It is important to abide by all safety rules in the construction zone.
在工地遵守所有安全規則是很重要的。
(C) figure out… / figure… out  弄明白……
Toby couldn’t figure out the answer, but at least he tried.
陶比想不出答案來,但至少他試過了。
(D) top off… / top… off  為……畫下句點
To top off our trip, we went to a fancy restaurant for dinner.
為了讓我們的旅行畫下完美的句點,我們在一家高級餐廳吃晚餐。
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

3. For the song’s duration, the performers of "4’33" are instructed not to play a single note on their instruments.
在這首曲子的演奏期間,演奏「四分三十三秒」的音樂家被指示不要用他們的樂器演奏出任何一個音符。

理由:
a. (A) destine vt. 命定,注定
: destined a.(命中)注定要??的
be destined to V / for N  注定……
Asha is destined to become the next hottest designer in the world.
雅莎注定要成為全球下一個最炙手可熱的設計師。
(B) instruct vt. 教導;指示
: instruct sb to V  指示某人做??
Mom instructed me to clean the kitchen after cooking dinner.
媽媽指示我煮好晚餐後把廚房清理乾淨。
(C) establish vt. 建立
: set up…
Mr. Wang is establishing a charity to help the poor.
王先生正在籌設一個慈善機構來幫助窮人。
(D) disguise vt. 假扮
: disguise sb / oneself as…  將某人∕自己喬裝成……
Mary disguised herself as a man in order to join the club.
為了加入這個俱樂部,瑪莉女扮男裝。
b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。

4. This leaves the audience sitting in a quiet room—and that’s when the magic begins.
這讓觀眾坐在安靜的空間裡 ── 而奇妙的事就在此刻發生了。

理由:
a. 本題測試 leave 作不完全及物動詞的用法,即 leave 加受詞後,可接現在分詞(表主動概念)或過去分詞(表被動概念)作受詞補語,表「使……處於……(狀態)」:
Anna left Frank waiting in the rain last night.
安娜昨晚讓法蘭克在雨中等她。
The traffic accident left us trapped on the highway for a long time.
那起交通意外使我們受困在高速公路上很長一段時間。
b. 根據上述及語意,(B) 項應為正選。

5. Some people enjoy the silence, while others become anxious from the lack of noise that they are constantly bombarded by in their everyday lives.
有些人享受寂靜,有些人則對於少了在日常生活中不停轟炸他們的噪音而感到焦慮不安。

理由:
a. (A) versatile a.(物)多用途的;(人)多才多藝的
This makeup kit is so versatile that it is the only one you will ever need.
這個化妝箱用途相當廣泛,所以你只要這一只就夠了。
(B) patriotic a. 愛國的
French people around the world sang La Marseillaise, France’s national anthem, with patriotic feeling after the attacks.
在那些攻擊事件後,世界各地的法國人以愛國之情唱法國國歌《馬賽進行曲》。
*national anthem  國歌
(C) ethical a. 道德的
Scientists believe that clones could benefit mankind in many ways, though there are still some unresolved ethical problems.
科學家認為複製的動物或植物可以在許多方面帶給人類助益,雖然目前仍有尚未解決的倫理問題。
*clone n. 複製
(D) anxious a. 焦慮的;渴望的
: be anxious about…  對……感到焦慮∕緊張
Julie is anxious about the interview tomorrow.
茱莉對明天的面試感到緊張。
b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。

6. Eventually, the background noises of the present moment become the song, making every performance of "4’33" entirely unique.
最終,當下的背景噪音變成了歌曲,使得每一次「四分三十三秒」的演奏全然獨一無二。

理由:
a. (A) eventually adv. 最後,終於
Amy’s constant complaints eventually pushed her husband over the edge.
愛咪不停的抱怨終於把她老公逼到忍無可忍。
*push sb over the edge  把某人逼到絕境
(B) frequently adv. 經常地,頻繁地
Cindy frequently goes hiking in the woods because she loves being outdoors.
辛蒂常常到森林裡健行,因為她喜歡待在戶外。
(C) obviously adv. 明顯地
The food tastes a bit sour; obviously it has gone bad.
這個食物嚐起來有點酸;顯然它餿掉了。
(D) previously adv. 先前
Tina is now a flight attendant, but she previously worked at a language center.
提娜現在是空服員,但她之前在一家語言中心工作。
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

7. This composition also brought the Zen Buddhist concepts of silence and nothingness, philosophies that Cage was deeply interested in, to the classical music stage.
這首曲子也將凱吉深感興趣的哲學 ── 禪宗對於無聲和空的概念 ── 融入古典音樂。

理由:
a. (A) disturbance n. 干擾
Phone calls in the middle of a movie can be a great disturbance.
電影看到一半電話響起會是一大干擾。
(B) vengeance n. 報復,報仇
Heaven’s vengeance is slow but sure.
法網恢恢,疏而不漏。── 諺語
(C) philosophy n. 哲學;人生觀
Dan’s negative philosophy towards life is one of the reasons he’s alone.
阿丹消極的人生觀是他孤獨的原因之一。
(D) conspiracy n. 陰謀
It has recently come to light that an official was implicated in the conspiracy.
最近有消息披露某官員與這項陰謀有所牽連。
*be implicated in…  與……有牽連
b. 根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。

1. masterpiece n. 傑作;名作
That painter is only willing to sell his masterpiece at the price of US$30 million.
那位畫家只願意以三千萬美金的價格出售他的傑作。

2. lyrics n. 歌詞(恆用複數)
The lyrics of that song remind me of my ex-girlfriend.
那首歌的歌詞使我想起我的前女友。

3. composer n. 作曲家
: compose vt. 作(曲、詩等)
composition n.(音樂、文學)作品
Emily composes poems based on what she has seen in nature.
艾蜜莉以觀賞大自然得到的靈感來寫詩。
It took Mozart only a few hours to complete the composition of the sonata.
莫札特只花了幾個鐘頭就完成那首奏鳴曲。
*sonata n. 奏鳴曲

4. entitle vt. 給……命名;給予資格∕權利
: be entitled to N / V  有資格(做)……
In democratic societies, people are entitled to freedom of speech.
在民主社會中,人民享有言論自由。
*democratic a. 民主的

5. duration n. 期間;持續時間
: for the duration of…  在??的期間
The package includes a free breakfast buffet for the duration of your holiday.
這個套裝行程包含假期期間的免費自助式早餐。

6. instrument n. 樂器
Agnes is good at playing many kinds of musical instruments.
艾格妮絲很擅長彈奏許多種樂器。

7. confront vt. 面臨
: be confronted with…  面對……;遭遇……
We were confronted with many problems before the project was completed.
在這件企劃完成前,我們遭遇許多困難。

8. bombard vt. 轟炸;不斷提出問題
: bombard sb with sth
不斷向某人提出問題或批評
The audience bombarded the speaker with questions after the two-hour speech.
為時兩小時的演講結束之後,聽眾不斷向講者提出許多問題。

9. hum vi. 發出嗡嗡聲

10. spark vt. 激發(興趣);引起
Gary’s comment sparked another argument.
蓋瑞的言論引發了另一場爭執。

11. publicity n. 宣傳;名氣;公開
Few attended the concert because of bad publicity.
因為宣傳不佳,來看這場演唱會的人寥寥無幾。

12. stunt n. 噱頭;特技動作
The audience was amazed by the spectacular stunts performed in the show.
觀眾們對表演中精彩的特技感到驚歎不已。

13. acclaimed a. 受到讚揚的
Andrew’s latest album was an acclaimed masterpiece.
安德魯的最新專輯被譽為傑作。

 

聆聽寂靜的聲音
約翰‧凱吉的名曲探討沉默之聲。

  

  音樂作品通常因歌詞、和弦、節奏及旋律而有所區別。那若把一首歌裡的這些元素全都拿掉後會發生什麼事呢?它仍可被稱為音樂嗎?美國作曲家約翰‧凱吉就在他的一首名為「四分三十三秒」的前衛作品中探討這個概念。
  這首曲子作於 1952 年,名稱指的是歌曲長度:四分三十三秒。在這首曲子的演奏期間,演奏「四分三十三秒」的音樂家被指示不要用他們的樂器演奏出任何一個音符。這讓觀眾坐在安靜的空間裡 ── 而奇妙的事就在此刻發生了。「四分三十三秒」溫和地迫使聽眾面對寂靜與空虛。有些人享受寂靜,有些人則對於少了在日常生活中不停轟炸他們的噪音而感到焦慮不安。最後,不可能保持完全沉默太久。空調嗡嗡聲、窗外鳥鳴聲或人們在座位上發出的窸窣聲響等環境音越來越清晰。最終,當下的背景噪音變成了歌曲,使得每一次「四分三十三秒」的演奏全然獨一無二。
  這首絕無僅有的曲子激發了對於音樂定義的討論。有些評論家對此嗤之以鼻,稱它為低俗的宣傳噱頭,有些人則認為它是神來之筆。凱吉認為它闡述了他的想法:生活中,我們從事的一切都是音樂。這首曲子也將凱吉深感興趣的哲學 ── 禪宗對於無聲和空的概念 ── 融入古典音樂。雖然凱吉在一生中也作了數首頗受讚譽的曲子,但他認為「四分三十三秒」是他的傑作。
答案:
1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. C

 
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